This is a very good discussion outlining some very old problems. Democracy as we know it is a much abbreviated form and allows very limited popular involvement. That is because the Athenian experience with democracy proved it was inherently unstable even in the best situation with a small city state.
As I’ve talked about in a range of other articles we are looking at two conflicting trends driven by population and technology. The future is metropolitan administrative units in multiple interest group alliances for trade, education, and environmental issues. Nation states will devolve to metropolitan city states while planetary management must become unified alliances.
Rights and resource allocation and asset management must be standardized for all at the planetary level. Government, i.e. social administration, works best at smaller regional levels able to allow diversity and innovation in those societies. I see this being a growing range of rights agreed to and supported at the planetary level and managed by representatives of all governments that are themselves primarily small and concerned with differences and local preferences. The larger rights (Universal Rights) cannot be changed or affected by politics that is, by definition, local, day to day operational administration. No rights can be reduced except by universal vote but rights can be increased by normal planetary alliance agreement.